The American College of Physicians (ACP) has developed the Noninvasive Treatments for Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Low Back Pain, a series of guidelines that emphasize non-pharmacologic treatments.
The guidelines are composed of three main recommendations based on a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials and systematic reviews on noninvasive pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment for low back pain.
The guidelines discuss the potential harm of pharmacologic therapies, examining the evidence for the use of certain drugs in chronic low back pain. The guidelines also examine the potential benefits of treatments such as superficial heat, massage, acupuncture, spinal manipulation, exercise, multidisciplinary rehabilitation, mindfulness-based stress relief, tai chi, yoga, progressive relaxation, electromyography biofeedback, low-level laser therapy, operant therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy, and more.
For more in-depth information, read the guideline in full.